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Saturday, May 5, 2012


Critical thinking exercises
1. Write a story that shows the virtue of kindness
a. It could be your own personal experiences.
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Random acts of kindness are a wonderful way to reach across time and space to touch the life of another being. Publicizing and raising awareness of the significance of human kindness undoubtedly makes the world a better place. At every step along the path of expanding awareness there is the opportunity to go deeper; to explore more of the potential of our divine humanness. So it is with kindness. Acts of kindness are really not difficult. An intention is formed, and you carry it out. It makes you feel good. Holding kindness and compassion in our hearts, and integrating them into the complexity and stresses of daily life, every day -- now there is a deep challenge!

Parents can learn to discipline kindly, remaining firm, yet doing so with love and warmth. Teachers can learn to remain patient and forgiving, no matter how frustrated they might feel with a particular student. Employees can choose to cooperate and remain positive about employers, rather than going into polarity. They can preserve their integrity, leaving the job if they must. Employers can honor the individuality and dignity of each staff member, placing the significance of the human over the material. Men and women can choose to focus on what is beautiful and special about the opposite sex, rather than battling for superiority. Children can learn to let everyone play, rather than setting up exclusive games. We can all begin to celebrate adolescence and help teens to feel proud of themselves, rather than raising our eyebrows in disgust. Teenagers can learn to be patient with and accepting of adults in spite of our limitations, instead of raising their eyebrows in disgust. Drivers can realize that there is enough road to share, and time to get there.

Allowing a spirit of kindness to permeate our collective lives would be a quantum leap, from an evolutionary standpoint. Eliminating meanness, pettiness, gossip, criticism, judgement, polarity, and blame would be a superb act of kindness. It is also a fundamental step along any spiritual path. Those negative qualities reflect a very dense, heavy energy, vested solidly in ego, and they block the light of the spirit. Random acts of kindness amidst the darker energies are certainly a positive start. We can do more. Much more. We can resolve to be kinder, gentler beings. All day, every day. We can treat those closest to us with the same respect and politeness that we reserve for friends and colleagues. We can refuse to litter the lives of others with negative energy. If we do this, we will be doing our part to create a world in which kindness is never a random act, but rather a way of life.

Gwen Randall-Young is a psychotherapist who bridges the worlds of psychology and spirituality, and the author of several books and audio tapes.
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Top of Form Kindness Stories From Tricia Crabtree
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Dear Readers:

As a parent, I couldn't help but pass along my daughter's story.
My daughter, Taylor Marie Crabtree (age seven) started a business called TayBear Company. She makes and sells hand painted hair clips at local stores. When she started her business I assumed that she wanted extra spending money, but then she told me the purpose of her business.

Taylor was going to buy teddy bears for children with cancer. She said the kids probably have a lot of sadness in their lives and she wanted them to have something special to hug and to hug them back. Taylor wanted them to know that even strangers care about them. She set her goal at 500 teddy bears. I thought her too high goal was that of a child that didn't really understand. I was the one that didn't understand.

The media picked up on Taylor's project and our community has embraced her efforts. But help has come from far beyond our little community. Taylor has received donations from strangers that live thousands of miles away, just from word of mouth. It has been rather like a chain letter from the heart. With her scribbly second grade handwriting, she wrote each person with her appreciation and an update on her project. She has also expanded her project to include over 100 other children (including special needs kids) as helpers. Taylor wanted other kids to feel that they too were capable of helping others in their own way. Along the way she also raised her goal to 700 teddy bears.

What is truly amazing is that she has sold over 1,000 hair clips. She buys supplies over the Internet, and she has e-mail letters going between herself and the marketing directors of several large companies (they offer advice). She keeps financial records of all donations, supplies, sales, and checking account activity (yes, she even has a business account) and has arranged for some corporate donations. The local supermarket even stuffs grocery bags with her flyers and has donation cans at their registers. I've listened in amazement as she's discussed the hugability of the teddy bears with vendors and later ordered 700 teddy bears after negotiating a lower price. But she has been very clear that none of this is about her but about helping the kids with cancer.

Taylor has been touched by so many people on her journey. While selling hair clips, one woman began questioning her about the project. She was very suspicious about just where the collected money was going. Taylor gladly talked on and on about all the little steps she had taken to that point and about children and cancer. Looking on, I noticed that the woman's suspicions had turned to sadness. She became teary eyed and stopped Taylor in mid sentence. She then leaned down and hugged Taylor from a place deep in her heart. She then told Taylor that her eight year old son had died just five months before from cancer and that he would have been very proud to have had one of her teddy bears.

Each day after selling, Taylor and her helpers talk about the people who had touched their hearts. Maybe it was the homeless man that had donated 11 cents and was surprised when he was told that was plenty of money to buy a hair clip. He and Taylor stood together choosing just the right hair clip for his lady friend. Or maybe it was the young woman who was flying back home the next day to say goodbye for the last time to her father, who was dying from cancer. Perhaps it was the man that drove all the way to his bank and back in order to buy a hair clip for his Mom. He said that his Dad had recently died from cancer. He wanted a child to have a teddy bear in his Dad's memory. With each hair clip or donation has come so many memories and a realization that when working toward a goal from your heart, the journey too is part of the experience. Taylor once told me "how could people not see Angels, they're everywhere."

On a recent trip to the Cancer Center, Taylor was giving an art class on making hair clips. She met so many very sick kids. On the drive home she talked of Breanne, a three year old girl who had one eye removed in order to reach a cancerous tumor in her brain. Taylor enjoyed meeting her and talked about Breanne's beautiful smile and personality. Taylor stopped talking for a moment and then said "I really hope she likes my bear."

Taylor will be continuing her work and wants to reach even more children with cancer that could use a hug from a teddy bear. If you would like to send her your thoughts, you can reach her via e-mail at or by writing to: TayBear Co. c/o this magazine. (See address on the inside front cover.) Thank you for your time in reading my little girl's story and I hope you remember to see the angels around us all, even the little ones.
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Top of Form Random Acts of Kindness Stories
From Beth Fryer
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Dear Readers:

Once, many years ago, my mom was diagnosed with breast cancer and was scheduled for a mastectomy. That morning I attended a college class in which the husband of a good friend was also a student. Most mornings we said hello to one another and that was about it - he would sit with his guy friends, and I usually sat alone. When he entered class that morning, he came and sat next to me. He never mentioned my mom, never talked about the situation at all...he just sat next to me and chatted a bit. That was the day I learned that sometimes the kindest act is just to BE there...and I always remember this as one of the most touching acts of kindness I've ever received.
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2. Alternative medicine is better than western medicine. Discuss.
alternative medicine

A variety of therapeutic or preventive health care practices, such as homeopathy, naturopathy, chiropractic, and herbal medicine, that do not follow generally accepted medical methods and may not have a scientific explanation for their effectiveness.

Alternative medicine is defined as any health practice that takes the place of, or is incompatible with, conventional Western medicine. Distinction must be made between alternative medicine and complementary medicine. Complementary medicine may involve nontraditional medical practices, but is undertaken along with traditional healing approaches. Alternative medicine implies using only nontraditional methods.
Alternative medicine includes a broad range of practices. Some healing therapies are based on Ancient Chinese beliefs, like acupuncture and the use of certain herbal compounds. Others focus on Hindu, or Ayurvedic, therapies including diet changes, the practice of yoga, and emphasizing the connection of mind, body, and spirit.
Mind, body, and spirit healing is also championed as holistic health, and can be alternative or complementary. Dr. Deepak Chopra, for example, practices medicine in this way, leaning more toward alternative than conventional thinking, although he holds a Western medical degree. His teachings have been hotly contested in the medical community.
Some other examples of alternative medicine include massage, meditation, chiropractic techniques and practice, spiritual healing, exercise practices like Tai Chi, and aromatherapy. This is just a short list of an almost inexhaustible supply of alternative therapies. Many people use some form of alternative medicine when they take vitamins or herbal supplements without consulting a doctor. For example, many people who contract a cold use Airborne, a nutritional supplement, instead of seeing a doctor. With no traditional medical advice, the user of Airborne practices alternative medicine.
One problem with vitamins and herbal supplements used in alternative medicine is that most are classified as nutritional supplements. Since they are not classed as medication, they are not subject to the kind of scrutiny and testing the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) generally uses. So while these supplements may claim results, the results do not have to be proved in clinical trials.
Ephedra, for example, was not given the same scrutiny as prescribed medications for weight loss. As such, there were no controls to determine whether taking ephedra could be dangerous. It did help some lose weight, but the cost was high. Once deaths began to occur from the use of ephedra, the FDA pulled it from the market. Beforehand, since ephedra was a nutritional supplement, the FDA did not test it and thus lost the chance to save some lives. Other herbal remedies have specific interactions with medications and may pose more danger.
Proponents of herbal therapy argue that the FDA has frequently missed things when testing “approved” drugs. The drugs Vioxx and Seroquel have recently been found to cause serious side effects, resulting in wrongful death and injury claims. There are numerous examples of the FDA approving drugs without lengthy testing, or approving drugs when the clinical results were manufactured or dubious.
Alternative practitioners can often point to thousands of years of anecdotal evidence that suggests certain alternative practices are successful. The Western medical community largely stands opposed to such practices, but as complementary medicine has advanced, there are now medical schools that teach “alternative” methods. Many physicians now embrace complementary medicine because it creates more options for addressing a medical condition.
Some people turn to alternative medicine when the traditional medical community can offer them no help or cure for a condition. Again, anecdotal evidence suggests that certain therapies may help to improve quality of life for these people. Western physicians acknowledge the more established methods of alternative medicine and recommend alternative therapies for patients they cannot help through traditional medicine. While some physicians remain skeptical, alternative medicine is often looked upon as a last resort strategy.
Unfortunately, most health insurance companies do not provide coverage of alternative medicine of any kind. If one is lucky, chiropractic care may be included in a health plan. Generally, though, one has to pay for acupuncture, yoga classes, nutritional supplements or any other alternative therapy. Caution should be observed when embarking on an alternative medicine health plan, because most governments do not regulate alternative practices, and as with traditional medicine, there are some unscrupulous or unqualified practitioners.

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Western medicine (... MEH-dih-sin)

A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery. Also called allopathic medicine, biomedicine, conventional medicine, mainstream medicine, and orthodox medicine.

Western medicine is the term used to describe the treatment of medical conditions with medications, by doctors, nurses and other conventional healthcare providers who employ methods developed according to Western medical and scientific traditions. Other names for Western medicine include traditional medicine or allopathic medicine. It differs from Eastern, or alternative, medicine, in its approach to treatment, which relies heavily upon industrially produced medications and a strict adherence to the formal scientific process.
Western medicine encompasses all types of conventional medical treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and physical therapy. The practitioners of Western medicine are doctors, nurses, physical, occupational, and respiratory therapists. Generally, anyone visiting a doctor's office or hospital will receive allopathic treatment.
The main benefit of traditional medicine is that the work of allopathic practitioners is subject to rigorous safety and effectiveness protocols. Treatments and medications pass a strict review before a patient can receive them. While some Eastern medicine treatments have been the subject of clinical trials and long-term studies, they are in the minority.
history of safety to back up various treatment protocols. Before a new treatment or drug is approved for use on the public, it goes through an extensive testing process, first in the laboratory, and then through several layers of patient testing. Some people become frustrated with Western medicine because the approval process for new treatments is so lengthy. For people with concerns about the type of treatment they are receiving for a particular condition, there is no reason to abandon conventional medicine. Clinical trials allow many patients to take advantage of new treatment protocols before they receive official approval.
The guidelines for participating in clinical trials are very strict, and many will not accept patients who have received alternative medicines, due to concerns that it will skew the results of the trial. Teaching and research hospitals typically house most clinical trials, so living within commuting distance of one of these establishments increases the odds of participation. If you believe that you would benefit from a clinical trial, ask your physician for a recommendation.
Western medicine practitioners are generally willing to work with other allopathic practitioners to devise the best course of care for a particular injury or illness. One patient may have a primary care physician, a surgeon, a physical therapist, and an occupational therapist. They will share information with each other to help improve the prognosis, and reduce the potential downtime for each patient. Some of these practitioners may also be willing to work with practitioners of alternative, and Eastern medicine, though this is less common.
Consider a visit to a Western trained physician for any condition that is serious or invasive. The decision to treat a serious medical condition with alternative medicine is not a decision to make lightly. Instead, talk to a traditional doctor about any concerns about a specific treatment, and seek second opinions whenever possible.
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3. Discuss the advantages and the advantages of the National Service Programme

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Compulsory National Service
Edit Article | Posted: Sep 14, 2010 |Comments: 0 | Views: 728 |
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It is generally agreed today that national service is compulsory for each SPM leaver. National service was first started around the year of 2004. The SPM leavers are randomly selected to enter the national service. As directed by the Ministry of Education of Malaysia,it is compulsory for each selected youth to participate in this programme. Actions will be taken if they do not participate in it. I personally agreed that compulsory national service is good for the youth. One must admit that national service can bring so much benefits for them.
Let us start by considering the facts. The youth can fill up their time by participating in the national service. They can benefit their free time after their SPM exam with lots of activities arranged in the programme. Rather that loitering around, doing window shoppings, watching television, the youths can participate in many fun activities during the national service. They will not waste their time doing some useless activities. During the activities in national service, they will gain lots of knowledge, improve their health, gain new friends, and many more. Time is gold. So,the youths should always rember that time is so precious for them to fill it with useful activities.
Furthemore,we should not forget that by participating in national service, the youths will receive a lot of experiences. During the programme, they will be taught by many experienced teachers. Maybe, some youths from urban-background have no camping experience. They,maybe do not know how to set up fire or cooking food. So, national service provides them with those, for them-unusual activities and experiences. They can learn new things that they do not know. Other youths can also teach them. This experiences can easily gain by them as most of activities held provide them from within and outside knowledge. I believe that participating in national service is good for them because they can gain lots of knowledge and experience during the activities.
Moreover, the youths can find more fiend participating in national service. The youths come from all over Malaysia to participate in this programme. When they are gathered together, they are easily acquainted as they all come with different background. They can share their views with each other about state matters,state achievements,state noble men and many more. They can also exchange ideas and share their knowledge about each other's race and customs. This healthy relationship not only will improve the multiracial ties but also will contribute to the country's development. Therefore, participating in national service can develop ties with friends from all over the country
Equally relevant to the issue are the questions of national service's disadvantages. We should,nevertheless, consider the problem from another angle. There are also disadvantages of this programme that make me less agree with it.
The other side of the coin is,however, that the youths need to be apart from their families. It is sad that for about three months, they cannot live with their family. Besides, they cannot spend more time together before entering the next education institutes. But, it is also dissapointing that the youths will feel free from their parent's concern. They can befriend some licentious people. They can get bad influences. This can be a great concern to the parents who are expecting their children to be better than before. We should be concerned about their surroundings and how they are getting adopt to it.
In addition,by participating in national service, the youths have to delay their holiday plans for awhile. They are bound to the schedule which have been arranged by the organisers. For someone who have financial problems, they cannot work part-time jobs to earn money during their long holiday. For someone who wants to enjoy holiday abroad,they have to wait until they are done with the programme. In a nutshell, by participating in the national service, participants are prevented from doing holiday activities.
In conclusion, they are advantages and disadvantages of compulsory national service. In my opinion, i agree with the compulsory national service without concidering its disadvantages. The government should improve the activities and make the activities more interesting in the national service so that the youths will be more eager to participate in the programme.

4. Describe the scene after a town had been hit by tsunami.

What Happens After A Tsunami Hits ?

A tsunami is a huge seismic wave caused due to an earth quake in the ocean. It is mainly caused due to the disturbances on the ocean floor. A tsunami can be extremely devastating. The after effects of tsunami is every difficult to deal with. The wave of water just floods towns and cities and many of them just get crushed under the weight of the wave.
Even though the water may recede into the sea after some time, the debris it leaves is humongous. Tsunami is a killer because there is very little time to prepare for the damages it can cause. People do not even get enough time to evacuate. Most of them realize only when the wave is approaching because of its abnormal size.
Tsunami is measured by the highest point in the wave which is crest. However, when the wave is coming down, it gains magnitude and travels forward. Tsunamis are very different from normal tidal waves. The tsunamis have a long wave height and they also stay for a longer period of time unlike the normal beach waves. Some of the tsunami waves can stay for a period like one hour. When sea floor shifts abruptly, then the ocean surface can get disturbed deeply. However, not all earthquakes and volcanic eruptions result in a tsunami. It has to measure at least 7.0 or more in order to form a tsunami. After a tsunami hits the land, it loses all force and it will not occur again immediately.
Japan Earthquake And Tsunami

Japan is a land that is prone to both tsunamis and earthquakes. That is why most people in Japan build their homes with wood so that the effects of quakes are minimal. In 1995, a tsunami occurred in Japan and it killed more then 6,500 people. The earthquake that occurred in the ocean floor could have been a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale.
Tsunamis can occur for various reasons and some measure less than one meter and while others can measure several hundreds of feet. It is abnormal for water to rise to such a level. However, Japan has had a history of tsunamis and some were very devastating and some were les destructive. However, the world’s worst tsunami occurred in Alaska and it was the biggest so far.
The meteorological department can predict a tsunami if they can measure an earth quake nearby. In most cases an earthquake directly results in tsunami and especially in islands like Japan. When a tsunami strikes, several people die and also a lot of property damage is caused. That is why, in Japan, people do not build very close to the coastline. They also have speed breakers towards the coast which will reduce the magnitude of the wave before it strikes the land.
Because of the historic tsunamis that have occurred in Japan and caused repeated destruction, people there are more prepared for such events. Japan experiences a lot of earth quakes every once in a few years. So, tsunami and earthquakes go hand in hand in Japan.
What Kind Of Damage Can A Tsunami Cause ?

A tsunami is a huge wave that occurs in the ocean due to a volcano, earthquake, landslide or a meteoroid impact and then spreads on to land. It can devastate life on land when it strikes. The effects of tsunami were clearly seen in Indonesia and Malaysia, Sri Lanka and India when it occurred in 2004 December. Several animals and people died due to a tsunami.
The tsunami waves are not the regular ocean waves and they are not caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. Some of the tsunami waves can travel up to a distance of 100 kilometers and they are traveling at a speed of more than 700 kilometers per hour. So within a matter of few minutes the tsunami covers a huge area and then devastates everything in that span of area when it reaches the land.
Most people realize that a tsunami is coming only after they see it. So, there is very little time for evacuation in case of a tsunami. A tsunami can cause severe damage to the property and people. It causes instant floods that cover hundreds of kilometers. Many houses and buildings can get completely submerged in the after within a matter of few seconds. Boats and vehicles get washed away in a tsunami. Several people get stuck under the debris, and also some people get washed away with unexpected water. People lose homes, and are stranded out in the cold without food and water to drink after tsunami strikes.

1. The Green House Effects
The "greenhouse effect" often gets a bad rap because of its association with global warming, but the truth is we couldn't live without it.
What Causes the Greenhouse Effect?
Life on earth depends on energy from the sun. About 30 percent of the sunlight that beams toward Earth is deflected by the outer atmosphere and scattered back into space. The rest reaches the planet's surface and is reflected upward again as a type of slow-moving energy called infrared radiation.
The heat caused by infrared radiation is absorbed by "greenhouse gases" such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone and methane, which slows its escape from the atmosphere.
Although greenhouse gases make up only about 1 percent of the Earth's atmosphere, they regulate our climate by trapping heat and holding it in a kind of warm-air blanket that surrounds the planet.
This phenomenon is what scientists call the "greenhouse effect." Without it, scientists estimate that the average temperature on Earth would be colder by approximately 30 degrees Celsius (54 degrees Fahrenheit), far too cold to sustain our current ecosystem.
How Do Humans Contribute to the Greenhouse Effect?
While the greenhouse effect is an essential environmental prerequisite for life on Earth, there really can be too much of a good thing.
The problems begin when human activities distort and accelerate the natural process by creating more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere than are necessary to warm the planet to an ideal temperature.
·         Burning natural gas, coal and oil -including gasoline for automobile engines-raises the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
·         Some farming practices and land-use changes increase the levels of methane and nitrous oxide.
·         Many factories produce long-lasting industrial gases that do not occur naturally, yet contribute significantly to the enhanced greenhouse effect and "global warming" that is currently under way.
·         Deforestation also contributes to global warming. Trees use carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in its place, which helps to create the optimal balance of gases in the atmosphere. As more forests are logged for timber or cut down to make way for farming, however, there are fewer trees to perform this critical function.
·         Population growth is another factor in global warming, because as more people use fossil fuels for heat, transportation and manufacturing the level of greenhouse gases continues to increase. As more farming occurs to feed millions of new people, more greenhouse gases enter the atmosphere.
Ultimately, more greenhouse gases means more infrared radiation trapped and held, which gradually increases the temperature of the Earth's surface and the air in the lower atmosphere.
The Average Global Temperature is Increasing Quickly
Today, the increase in the Earth's temperature is increasing with unprecedented speed. To understand just how quickly global warming is accelerating, consider this:
During the entire 20th century, the average global temperature increased by about 0.6 degrees Celsius (slightly more than 1 degree Fahrenheit).
Using computer climate models, scientists estimate that by the year 2100 the average global temperature will increase by 1.4 degrees to 5.8 degrees Celsius (approximately 2.5 degrees to 10.5 degrees Fahrenheit).
Not All Scientists Agree
While the majority of mainstream scientists agree that global warming is a serious problem that is growing steadily worse, there are some who disagree. John Christy, a professor and director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville is a respected climatologist who argues that global warming isn't worth worrying about.
Christy reached that opinion after analyzing millions of measurements from weather satellites in an effort to find a global temperature trend. He found no sign of global warming in the satellite data, and now believes that predictions of global warming by as much as 10 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the 21st century are incorrect.
What are the effects of global warming and the greenhouse effect?
Scientists agree that even a small increase in the global temperature would lead to significant climate and weather changes, affecting cloud cover, precipitation, wind patterns, the frequency and severity of storms, and the duration of seasons.
·         Rising temperatures would raise sea levels as well, reducing supplies of fresh water as flooding occurs along coastlines worldwide and salt water reaches inland.
·         Many of the world’s endangered species would become extinct as rising temperatures changed their habitat.
·         Millions of people also would be affected, especially poor people who live in precarious locations or depend on the land for a subsistence living.
·         Certain vector-borne diseases carried by animals or insects, such as malaria, would become more widespread as warmer conditions expanded their range.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions are the Biggest Problem
Currently, carbon dioxide accounts for more than 60 percent of the enhanced greenhouse effect caused by the increase of greenhouse gases, and the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing by more than 10 percent every 20 years.
If emissions of carbon dioxide continue to grow at current rates, then the level of the gas in the atmosphere will likely double, or possibly even triple, from pre-industrial levels during the 21st century.
Climate Changes are Inevitable
According to the United Nations, some climate change is already inevitable because of emissions that have occurred since the dawn of the Industrial Age.
While the Earth’s climate does not respond quickly to external changes, many scientists believe that global warming already has significant momentum due to 150 years of industrialization in many countries around the world. As a result, global warming will continue to affect life on Earth for hundreds of years, even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced and the increase in atmospheric levels halted.
What is Being Done to Reduce Global Warming?
To lessen those long-term effects, many nations, communities and individuals are taking action now to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and slow global warming by reducing dependence on fossil fuels, increasing the use of renewable energy, expanding forests, and making lifestyle choices that help to sustain the environment.
Whether they will be able to recruit enough people to join them, and whether their combined efforts will be enough to head off the most serious effects of global warming, are open questions that can only be answered by future developments.
What do “greenhouse effect” and “global warming” mean? And how do humans contribute to the problem? See the previous page.

2. Describe ways to improve your neighbourhood
Suggestions for individuals and home owner associations to implement to improve the safety and condition of their nieghborhood.
Here are several suggestions for individuals and home owners associations to implement in their neighborhood.  Implementing these ideas will improve the general safety and condition of nieghborhoods.
1. Recycling.  Many people recycle valuable materials such as aluminum or copper scrap, there are several items such as paper plastic and glass that are not efficiently recycled at an individual scale.  Look for a recycling service that will place bins near the community center free of charge and collect these items in bulk.  Do not bother with paid recycling services, some residents will not appreciate the inefficient use of community funds, plus the net benefits to the environment are debatable with a curbside service since there is an added pollution cost.
2. Neighborhood Watch Program.  There frequency of petty crimes such as car breakins and small theft in neighborhoods is too high, many of these crimes likely go unreported.  Of those that are reported, relatively few are likely ever resolved.  Any community could really benefit from a neighborhood watch program. Besides the added benefit of providing the neighborhod with additional free patrols and added security, it increases the association and bonding of neighborhood residents.
3.  Quarterly Home Owner Association Budget Reports. Be honest and transparent with residents about the association budget, make detailed reports available easily. Homeowners have an interest and right to know where their payments are being spent and what surpluses or shortfalls may exists.  With this knowledge some homeowners may become more involved in their associations activites.
4. Speed Bumps.  Many drivers travel through neighborhoods way too fast and pose a dangerous threat to the safety of individuals in the neighborhood.  on residential streets there are often children playing and cars parked along the street which reduce visibility.  This is a recipe for disaster, Homeowners associations should consider putting speedbumps on residential streets.  Speedbumps are highly effective, plus the resulting reduction in acceleration and speed will save carbon emissions throughout the neighborhood.
5. Become active in your homeowners associations and help implement the suggestions mentioned above.
  • Be polite.
  • Be helpful.
  • Lead by example.
  • Try to build a sense of pride in others.
  • Do not hesitate to hire a professional when appropriate.
edit Warnings
  • Not everyone wants to help or to be helped.
  • Always respect the property rights of others.
  • Do not attempt any project that you are not certain you can do safely and well.

3. Benefits of establishing wildlife sanctuaries.
wildlife sanctuaries help to preserve and bring back endangered species by giving them a natural environment to live in while they are in no danger of predetors or humans. it also helps to keep some species from becoming endangered. wildlife sanctuaries also educate people about the creatures so that they can maybe help in preserving them
Why do we need wildlife sanctuaries?

People are often confused why we need wildlife sanctuaries. It is understandable. We already have zoos and animal shelters that house animals.
However, it is important to remember that zoos and animal shelters serve a completely different purpose. Zoos, for example, are designed to display animals to the public. However, they are not necessarily focused on breeding. Wildlife sanctuaries are far more focused on conservation and less focused on exhibition. Zoos are also far more intrusive into the natural lives of animals. Also, zoos are more often located in urban areas. Wildlife sanctuaries are typically located in rural areas where more space is available.
Animal shelters usually do not focus on conservation either. They mostly hold more common animals such as cats and dogs. Animal shelters focus on adoption while zoos and wildlife sanctuaries try to provide a permanent home for animals. Animal shelters sometimes euthanize animals if they are not adopted in time. Wildlife sanctuaries almost never euthanize animals.
Wildlife sanctuaries are designed to help protect many endangered species in the world. They are spread out all over the world. Wildlife sanctuaries are often but not always much larger than zoos. Some wildlife sanctuaries cover as many as fourteen thousand acres. They usually also have smaller diversity of animals than zoos. Many wildlife sanctuaries are focused on helping several species.The largest zoo in the United States is the Red McCombs Wildlife zoo in Texas. It covers twelve thousand acres. San Diego Zoo is the most diverse zoo in the United States. In fact, it has over 900 different species. Many wildlife sanctuaries are underground and not very well known by tourists. Although many wildlife sanctuaries do exhibit animals, animals are often not caged.
Wildlife sanctuaries are significantly different from zoos and animal shelters. They are necessarily to help endangered species survive.

Some Wildlife Sanctuaries in Malaysia

4. Air Pollution

The Importance Of Air

Other planets have sunlight, but the Earth is the only planet we know that has air and water. Without air and water, the Earth would be unable to sustain life.
A diverse community of plant and animal life has thrived on this planet for millions of years, sustained by the sun and supported by the soil, water and air.

Definition of air pollution

Air pollution occurs when the air contains gases, dust, fumes or odour in harmful amounts. That is, amounts which could be harmful to the health or comfort of humans and animals or which could cause damage to plants and materials.
The substances that cause air pollution are called pollutants. Pollutants that are pumped into our atmosphere and directly pollute the air are called primary pollutants. Primary pollutant examples include carbon monoxide from car exhausts and sulfur dioxide from the combustion of coal.
Further pollution can arise if primary pollutants in the atmosphere undergo chemical reactions. The resulting compounds are called secondary pollutants. Photochemical smog is an example of this.

Historical explanation

In the days before the proliferation of large cities and industry, nature's own systems kept the air fairly clean. Wind mixed and dispersed the gases, rain washed the dust and other easily dissolved substances to the ground and plants absorbed carbon dioxide and replaced it with oxygen.
With increasing urbanisation and industrialisation, humans started to release more wastes into the atmosphere than nature could cope with.
Since then, more pollution has been added to the air by industrial, commercial and domestic sources. As these sources are usually found in major cities, the gases that are produced are usually concentrated in the air around them. The adverse effects of air pollution were graphically illustrated in London in 1952 when, in just a few days, an estimated 4000 people died from effects of fine particle pollution.
It is when these concentrated gases exceed safe limits that we have a pollution problem. Nature can no longer manage air pollution without our help.

More about pollutants

Air pollutants mainly occur as a result of gaseous discharges from industry and motor vehicles. There are also natural sources such as wind-blown dust and smoke from fires.
Some forms of air pollution create global problems, such as upper atmosphere ozone depletion and global warming. These problems are very complex, and require international cooperative efforts to find solutions.

Air Pollution Causes and Effects  

by Tom Socha   


Humans probably first experienced harm from air pollution when they built fires in poorly ventilated caves. Since then we have gone on to pollute more of the earth's surface. Until recently, environmental pollution problems have been local and minor because of the Earth's own ability to absorb and purify minor quantities of pollutants. The industrialization of society, the introduction of motorized vehicles, and the explosion of the population, are factors contributing toward the growing air pollution problem. At this time it is urgent that we find methods to clean up the air.
The primary air pollutants found in most urban areas are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (both solid and liquid). These pollutants are dispersed throughout the world's atmosphere in concentrations high enough to gradually cause serious health problems. Serious health problems can occur quickly when air pollutants are concentrated, such as when massive injections of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter are emitted by a large volcanic eruption.

Air Pollution in the Home

You cannot escape air pollution, not even in your own home. "In 1985 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that toxic chemicals found in the air of almost every American home are three times more likely to cause some type of cancer than outdoor air pollutants". (Miller 488) The health problems in these buildings are called "sick building syndrome". "An estimated one-fifth to one-third of all U.S. buildings are now considered "sick". (Miller 489) The EPA has found that the air in some office buildings is 100 times more polluted than the air outside. Poor ventilation causes about half of the indoor air pollution problems. The rest come from specific sources such as copying machines, electrical and telephone cables, mold and microbe-harboring air conditioning systems and ducts, cleaning fluids, cigarette smoke, carpet, latex caulk and paint, vinyl molding, linoleum tile, and building materials and furniture that emit air pollutants such as formaldehyde. A major indoor air pollutant is radon-222, a colorless, odorless, tasteless, naturally occurring radioactive gas produced by the radioactive decay of uranium-238. "According to studies by the EPA and the National Research Council, exposure to radon is second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer". (Miller 489)  Radon enters through pores and cracks in concrete when indoor air pressure is less than the pressure of gasses in the soil. Indoor air will be healthier than outdoor air if you use an energy recovery ventilator to provide a consistent supply of fresh filtered air and then seal air leaks in the shell of your home .

Sources of Pollutants  To enlarge an image, click on it.
The two main sources of pollutants in urban areas are transportation (predominantly automobiles) and fuel combustion in stationary sources, including residential, commercial, and industrial heating and cooling and coal-burning power plants. Motor vehicles produce high levels of carbon monoxides (CO) and a major source of hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Whereas, fuel combustion in stationary sources is the dominant source of sulfur dioxide (SO2).

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major pollutants in the atmosphere. Major sources of CO2 are fossil fuels burning and deforestation. "The concentrations of CO2 in the air around 1860 before the effects of industrialization were felt, is assumed to have been about 290 parts per million (ppm). In the hundred years and more since then, the concentration has increased by about 30 to 35 ppm that is by 10 percent". (Breuer 67) Industrial countries account for 65% of CO2 emissions with the United States and Soviet Union responsible for 50%. Less developed countries (LDCs), with 80% of the world's people, are responsible for 35% of CO2 emissions but may contribute 50% by 2020. "Carbon dioxide emissions are increasing by 4% a year". (Miller 450)
In 1975, 18 thousand million tons of carbon dioxide (equivalent to 5 thousand million tons of carbon) were released into the atmosphere, but the atmosphere showed an increase of only 8 billion tons (equivalent to 2.2 billion tons of carbon". (Breuer 70) The ocean waters contain about sixty times more CO2 than the atmosphere. If the equilibrium is disturbed by externally increasing the concentration of CO2 in the air, then the oceans would absorb more and more CO2.  If the oceans can no longer keep pace, then more CO2 will remain into the atmosphere. As water warms, its ability to absorb CO2 is reduced.
CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the earth into space. This produces the so-called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night. Increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere reinforces this effect and is expected to result in a warming of the Earth's surface. Currently carbon dioxide is responsible for 57% of the global warming trend. Nitrogen oxides contribute most of the atmospheric contaminants.

N0X - nitric oxide (N0) and nitrogen dioxide (N02)

  • Natural component of the Earth's atmosphere.
  • Important in the formation of both acid precipitation and photochemical smog (ozone), and causes nitrogen loading.
  • Comes from the burning of biomass and fossil fuels.
  • 30 to 50 million tons per year from human activities, and natural 10 to 20 million tons per year.
  • Average residence time in the atmosphere is days.
  • Has a role in reducing stratospheric ozone.

N20 - nitrous oxide

  • Natural component of the Earth's atmosphere.
  • Important in the greenhouse effect and causes nitrogen loading.
  • Human inputs 6 million tons per year, and 19 million tons per year by nature.
  • Residence time in the atmosphere about 170 years.
  • 1700 (285 parts per billion), 1990 (310 parts per billion), 2030 (340 parts per billion).
  • Comes from nitrogen based fertilizers, deforestation, and biomass burning.

Sulfur and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Sulfur dioxide is produced by combustion of sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal and fuel oils. Also, in the process of producing sulfuric acid and in metallurgical process involving ores that contain sulfur. Sulfur oxides can injure man, plants and materials. At sufficiently high concentrations, sulfur dioxide irritates the upper respiratory tract of human beings because potential effect of sulfur dioxide is to make breathing more difficult by causing the finer air tubes of the lung to constrict. "Power plants and factories emit 90% to 95% of the sulfur dioxide and 57% of the nitrogen oxides in the United States. Almost 60% of the SO2 emissions are released by tall smoke stakes, enabling the emissions to travel long distances". (Miller 494) As emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide from stationary sources are transported long distances by winds, they form secondary pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid vapor, and droplets containing solutions of sulfuric acid, sulfate, and nitrate salts. These chemicals descend to the earth's surface in wet form as rain or snow and in dry form as a gases fog, dew, or solid particles. This is known as acid deposition or acid rain.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

CFCs are lowering the average concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. "Since 1978 the use of CFCs in aerosol cans has been banned in the United States, Canada, and most Scandinavian countries. Aerosols are still the largest use, accounting for 25% of global CFC use". (Miller 448) Spray cans, discarded or leaking refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and the burning plastic foam products release the CFCs into the atmosphere. Depending on the type, CFCs stay in the atmosphere from 22 to 111 years. Chlorofluorocarbons move up to the stratosphere gradually over several decades. Under high energy ultra violet (UV) radiation, they break down and release chlorine atoms, which speed up the breakdown of ozone (O3) into oxygen gas (O2).
Chlorofluorocarbons, also known as Freons, are greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Photochemical air pollution is commonly referred to as "smog". Smog, a contraction of the words smoke and fog, has been caused throughout recorded history by water condensing on smoke particles, usually from burning coal. With the introduction of petroleum to replace coal economies in countries, photochemical smog has become predominant in many cities, which are located in sunny, warm, and dry climates with many motor vehicles. The worst episodes of photochemical smog tend to occur in summer.

Smog enlarge the image, click on it.
Photochemical smog is also appearing in regions of the tropics and subtropics where savanna grasses are periodically burned. Smog's unpleasant properties result from the irradiation by sunlight of hydrocarbons caused primarily by unburned gasoline emitted by automobiles and other combustion sources. The products of photochemical reactions includes organic particles, ozone, aldehydes, ketones, peroxyacetyl nitrate, organic acids, and other oxidants. Ozone is a gas created by nitrogen dioxide or nitric oxide when exposed to sunlight. Ozone causes eye irritation, impaired lung function, and damage to trees and crops. Another form of smog is called industrial smog.
This smog is created by burning coal and heavy oil that contain sulfur impurities in power plants, industrial plants, etc... The smog consists mostly of a mixture of sulfur dioxide and fog. Suspended droplets of sulfuric acid are formed from some of the sulfur dioxide, and a variety of suspended solid particles. This smog is common during the winter in cities such as London, Chicago, Pittsburgh. When these cities burned large amounts of coal and heavy oil without control of the output, large-scale problems were witnessed. In 1952 London, England, 4,000 people died as a result of this form of fog. Today coal and heavy oil are burned only in large boilers and with reasonably good control or tall smokestacks so that industrial smog is less of a problem. However, some countries such as China, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and some other eastern European countries, still burn large quantities of coal without using adequate controls.

Pollution Damage to Plants

With the destruction and burning of the rain forests more and more CO2 is being released into the atmosphere. Trees play an important role in producing oxygen from carbon dioxide. "A 115 year old Beech tree exposes about 200,000 leaves with a total surface to 1200 square meters. During the course of one sunny day such a tree inhales 9,400 liters of carbon dioxide to produce 12 kilograms of carbohydrate, thus liberating 9,400 liters of oxygen. Through this mechanism about 45,000 liters of air are regenerated which is sufficient for the respiration of 2 to 3 people". (Breuer 1) This process is called photosynthesis which all plants go though but some yield more and some less oxygen. As long as no more wood is burnt than is reproduced by the forests, no change in atmospheric CO2 concentration will result.
Pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and peroxyacl nitrates (PANs), cause direct damage to leaves of crop plants and trees when they enter leaf pores (stomates). Chronic exposure of leaves and needles to air pollutants can also break down the waxy coating that helps prevent excessive water loss and damage from diseases, pests, drought and frost. "In the midwestern United States crop losses of wheat, corn, soybeans, and peanuts from damage by ozone and acid deposition amount to about $5 billion a year". (Miller 498)

Reducing Pollution

You can help to reduce global air pollution and climate change by driving a car that gets at least 35 miles a gallon, walking, bicycling, and using mass transit when possible. Replace incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs, make your home more energy efficient, and buy only energy efficient appliances. Recycle newspapers, aluminum, and other materials. Plant trees and avoid purchasing products such as Styrofoam that contain CFCs. Support much stricter clean air laws and enforcement of international treaties to reduce ozone depletion and slow global warming.
Earth is everybody's home and nobody likes living in a dirty home. Together, we can make the earth a cleaner, healthier and more pleasant place to live.

5. Child Abuse

Child abuse is the physical, sexual, emotional mistreatment, or neglect of children.[1] In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child.[2] Most child abuse occurs in a child's home, with a smaller amount occurring in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with.[citation needed] There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological/emotional abuse, and child sexual abuse.
Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm".[3] A person who feels the need to abuse or neglect a child may now be described as a "pedopath".[4]

[edit] Types

Child abuse can take several forms:[5] The four main types are physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect.[6]

[edit] Neglect

Main article: Child neglect
Child neglect is where the responsible adult fails to provide adequately for various needs, including physical (failure to provide adequate food, clothing, or hygiene), emotional (failure to provide nurturing or affection), educational (failure to enroll a child in school), or medical (failure to medicate the child or take him or her to the doctor).

[edit] Physical abuse

Main article: Physical abuse
A Christian girl who was bruised and burnt during the Orissa violence in August 2008
Physical abuse is physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. It can involve punching, striking, kicking, shoving, slapping, burning, bruising, pulling ears or hair, stabbing, choking or shaking a child. Shaking a child can cause shaken baby syndrome, which can lead to intracranial pressure, swelling of the brain, diffuse axonal injury, and oxygen deprivation; which leads to patterns such as failure to thrive, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, bulging or tense fontanels, altered breathing, and dilated pupils. The transmission of toxins to a child through its mother (such as with fetal alcohol syndrome) can also be considered physical abuse in some jurisdictions.
Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the infliction of physical injuries or actions that place the child in obvious risk of serious injury or death to be illegal. Beyond this, there is considerable variation. The distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider public, people do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse.[7]
Some human-service professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse, and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms.[8]
The use of any kind of force against children as a disciplinary measure is illegal in 24 countries around the world,[9] but prevalent and socially accepted in many others. See corporal punishment in the home for more information.

[edit] Child sexual abuse

Main article: Child sexual abuse
Sexually abused child, (February 1, 1910 publication)
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation.[10][11] Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact against a child, physical contact with the child's genitals, viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography.[10][12][13]
Effects of child sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc.), self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression,[14] post-traumatic stress disorder,[15] anxiety,[16] other mental illnesses (including borderline personality disorder[17] and dissociative identity disorder,[17] propensity to re-victimization in adulthood,[18] bulimia nervosa,[19] physical injury to the child, among other problems.[20] Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children.[21][22][23][24][25] Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbours; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.[21]

[edit] Psychological/emotional abuse

Main article: Emotional abuse
Out of all the possible forms of abuse, emotional abuse is the hardest to define. It could include name-calling, ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings, torture or destruction of a pet, excessive criticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication, and routine labeling or humiliation.[26]
Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from the abuser, internalizing the abusive words, or fighting back by insulting the abuser. Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment disorder, a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the abuse, learned helplessness, and overly passive behavior.[26]

[edit] Prevalence

According to the (American) National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, in 1997 neglect represented 54% of confirmed cases of child abuse, physical abuse 22%, sexual abuse 8%, emotional maltreatment 4%, and other forms of maltreatment 12%.[27]
A UNICEF report on child wellbeing[28] stated that the United States and the United Kingdom ranked lowest among industrial nations with respect to the wellbeing of children. It also found that child neglect and child abuse were far more common in single-parent families than in families where both parents are present.
In the USA, neglect is defined as the failure to meet the basic needs of children including housing, clothing, food and access to medical care. Researchers found over 91,000 cases of neglect in one year (from October 2005 to 30 September 2006) using information from a database of cases verified by protective services agencies.[2]
Neglect could also take the form of financial abuse by not buying the child adequate materials for survival.[29]
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that for each year between 2000 and 2005, "female parents acting alone" were most likely to be perpetrators of child abuse.[30]

[edit] Fatalities

A child abuse fatality is when a child’s death is the result of abuse or neglect, or when abuse and/or neglect are contributing factors to a child’s death. In the United States, 1,730 children died in 2008 due to factors related to abuse; this is a rate of 2.33 per 100,000 U.S. children.[31] Child abuse fatalities are widely recognized as being under-counted; it is estimated that between 60-85% of child fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded as such on death certificates. Younger children are at a much higher risk for being killed, as are African Americans. Girls and boys, however, are killed at similar rates. Caregivers, and specifically mothers, are more likely to be the perpetrators of a child abuse fatality, than anyone else, including strangers, relatives, and non-relative caregivers. Family situations which place children at risk include moving, unemployment, having non-family members living in the household. A number of policies and programs have been put into place to try to better understand and to prevent child abuse fatalities, including: safe haven laws, child fatality review teams, training for investigators, shaken baby syndrome prevention programs, and child abuse death laws which mandate harsher sentencing for taking the life of a child.[32][unreliable source?][verification needed]

[edit] Causes

Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes.[33] Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse.[34] Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children.[35] However, it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse, or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser.[35]
Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse. One U.S. study found that parents with documented substance abuse, most commonly alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, were much more likely to mistreat their children, and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments.[36]
Another study found that over two thirds of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse, and between cocaine and sexual abuse.[37]
Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse.[38] In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession. It gave the example of a father who had never been the primary care-taker of the children. Now that the father was in that role, the children began to come in with injuries.[39]

[edit] Effects

There are strong associations between exposure to child abuse in all its forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions. The strongest evidence comes from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE's) series of studies which show correlations between exposure to abuse or neglect and higher rates in adulthood of chronic conditions, high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan.[40] A recent publication, Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse,[41] makes the case that such exposure represents a serious and costly public-health issue that should be addressed by the healthcare system.

[edit] Psychological effects

Children with a history of neglect or physical abuse are at risk of developing psychiatric problems,[42][43] or a disorganized attachment style.[44][45][46] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems, including dissociative symptoms,[47] as well as anxiety, depressive, and acting out symptoms.[48][49] A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment.[50][51] When some of these children become parents, especially if they suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociative symptoms, and other sequelae of child abuse, they may encounter difficulty when faced with their infant and young children's needs and normative distress, which may in turn lead to adverse consequences for their child's social-emotional development.[52][53] Despite these potential difficulties, psychosocial intervention can be effective, at least in some cases, in changing the ways maltreated parents think about their young children.[54]
Victims of childhood abuse, it is claimed, also suffer from different types of physical health problems later in life. Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head, abdominal, pelvic, or muscular pain with no identifiable reason.[55] Even though the majority of childhood abuse victims know or believe that their abuse is, or can be, the cause of different health problems in their adult life, for the great majority their abuse was not directly associated with those problems, indicating that sufferers were most likely diagnosed with other possible causes for their health problems, instead of their childhood abuse.[55]
The effects of child abuse vary, depending on the type of abuse. A 2006 study found that childhood emotional and sexual abuse were strongly related to adult depressive symptoms, while exposure to verbal abuse and witnessing of domestic violence had a moderately strong association, and physical abuse a moderate one. For depression, experiencing more than two kinds of abuse exerted synergetically stronger symptoms. Sexual abuse was particularly deleterious in its intrafamilial form, for symptoms of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and limbic irritability.[clarification needed] Childhood verbal abuse had a stronger association with anger-hostility than any other type of abuse studied, and was second only to emotional abuse in its relationship with dissociative symptoms. More generally, in the case of 23 of the 27 illnesses listed in the questionnaire of a French INSEE survey, some statistically significant correlations were found between repeated illness and family traumas encountered by the child before the age of 18 years.[56] These relationships show that inequality in terms of illness and suffering is not only social. It also has its origins in the family, where it is associated with the degrees of lasting affective problems (lack of affection, parental discord, the prolonged absence of a parent, or a serious illness affecting either the mother or father) that individuals report having experienced in childhood.

[edit] Physical effects
Rib fractures in an infant secondary to child abuse
Children who are physically abused are likely to receive bone fractures, particularly rib fractures,[57] and may have a higher risk of developing cancer.[58] Children who experience child abuse & neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as juveniles, 28% more likely to be arrested as adults, and 30% more likely to commit violent crime.[59]
The immediate physical effects of abuse or neglect can be relatively minor (bruises or cuts) or severe (broken bones, hemorrhage, or even death). In some cases the physical effects are temporary; however, the pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discounted. Meanwhile, the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on physical health is just beginning to be explored. The long-term effects can be:
Shaken baby syndrome. Shaking a baby is a common form of child abuse that often results in permanent neurological damage (80% of cases) or death (30% of cases).[60] Damage results from intracranial hypertension (increased pressure in the skull) after bleeding in the brain, damage to the spinal cord and neck, and rib or bone fractures (Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2007).
Impaired brain development. Child abuse and neglect have been shown, in some cases, to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly, resulting in impaired development (De Bellis & Thomas, 2003). These alterations in brain maturation have long-term consequences for cognitive, language, and academic abilities (Watts-English, Fortson, Gibler, Hooper, & De Bellis, 2006). NSCAW found more than three-quarters of foster children between 1 and 2 years of age to be at medium to high risk for problems with brain development, as opposed to less than half of children in a control sample (ACF/OPRE, 2004a).
Poor physical health. Several studies have shown a relationship between various forms of household dysfunction (including childhood abuse) and poor health (Flaherty et al., 2006; Felitti, 2002). Adults who experienced abuse or neglect during childhood are more likely to suffer from physical ailments such as allergies, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, high blood pressure, and ulcers (Springer, Sheridan, Kuo, & Carnes, 2007).[61]
On the other hand, there are some children who are raised in child abuse, but who manage to do unexpectedly well later in life regarding the preconditions. Such children have been termed dandelion children, as inspired from the way that dandelions seem to prosper irrespective of soil, sun, drought, or rain.[62] Such children (or currently grown-ups) are of high interest in finding factors that mitigate the effects of child abuse.

[edit] Prevention

April has been designated Child Abuse Prevention Month in the United States since 1983.[63] U.S. President Barack Obama continued that tradition by declaring April 2009 Child Abuse Prevention Month.[64] One way the Federal government of the United States provides funding for child-abuse prevention is through Community-Based Grants for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CBCAP).[65]
Resources for child-protection services are sometimes limited. According to Hosin (2007), "a considerable number of traumatized abused children do not gain access to protective child-protection strategies."[66] Briere (1992) argues that only when "lower-level violence" of children ceases to be culturally tolerated will there be changes in the victimization and police protection of children.[67]

[edit] Treatment

A number of treatments are available to victims of child abuse.[68] Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, first developed to treat sexually abused children, is now used for victims of any kind of trauma. It targets trauma-related symptoms in children including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), clinical depression and anxiety. It also includes a component for non-offending parents. Several studies have found that sexually abused children undergoing TF-CBT improved more than children undergoing certain other therapies. Data on the effects of TF-CBT for children who experienced only non-sexual abuse was not available as of 2006.[68]
Abuse-focused cognitive behavioral therapy was designed for children who have experienced physical abuse. It targets externalizing behaviors and strengthens prosocial behaviors. Offending parents are included in the treatment, to improve parenting skills/practices. It is supported by one randomized study.[68]
Child-parent psychotherapy was designed to improve the child-parent relationship following the experience of domestic violence. It targets trauma-related symptoms in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, including PTSD, aggression, defiance, and anxiety. It is supported by two studies of one sample.[68]
Other forms of treatment include group therapy, play therapy, and art therapy. Each of these types of treatment can be used to better assist the client, depending on the form of abuse they have experienced. Play therapy and art therapy are ways to get children more comfortable with therapy by working on something that they enjoy (coloring, drawing, painting, etc.). The design of a child's artwork can be a symbolic representation of what they are feeling, relationships with friends or family, and more. Being able to discuss and analyze a child's artwork can allow a professional to get a better insight of the child.[69]

[edit] Ethics

One of the most challenging ethical dilemmas arising from child abuse relates to the parental rights of abusive parents or caretakers with regard to their children, particularly in medical settings.[70] In the United States, the 2008 New Hampshire case of Andrew Bedner drew attention to this legal and moral conundrum. Bedner, accused of severely injuring his infant daughter, sued for the right to determine whether or not she remain on life support; keeping her alive, which would have prevented a murder charge, created a motive for Bedner to act that conflicted with the apparent interests of his child.[70][71][72] Bioethicists Jacob M. Appel and Thaddeus Mason Pope recently argued, in separate articles, that such cases justify the replacement of the accused parent with an alternative decision-maker.[70][73]
Child abuse also poses ethical concerns related to confidentiality, as victims may be physically or psychologically unable to report abuse to authorities. Accordingly, many jurisdictions and professional bodies have made exceptions to standard requirements for confidentiality and legal privileges in instances of child abuse. Medical professionals, including doctors, therapists, and other mental health workers typically owe a duty of confidentiality to their patients and clients, either by law and/or the standards of professional ethics, and cannot disclose personal information without the consent of the individual concerned. This duty conflicts with an ethical obligation to protect children from preventable harm. Accordingly, confidentiality is often waived when these professionals have a good faith suspicion that child abuse or neglect has occurred or is likely to occur and make a report to local child protection authorities. This exception allows professionals to breech confidentiality and make a report even when the child or his/her parent or guardian has specifically instructed to the contrary. Child abuse is also a common exception to Physician–patient privilege: a medical professional may be called upon to testify in court as to otherwise privileged evidence about suspected child abuse despite the wishes of the child and his/her family.[74]
Many jurisdictions go further with a system of mandated reporters: individuals, typically teachers, medical professionals, mental health workers, athletics coaches, and others, who are required by law to immediately report reasonable suspicion of child abuse or neglect to child welfare authorities. Mandated reporters can face criminal penalties for failing to make such a report. This duty undermines professional autonomy, as a medical professional is required to report even when he/she would prefer not to do so or believes that making a report is not in the best interest of the patient. Reporting is required even in cases where the patient is the suspected abuser, such as if a psychotherapist's patient reports abusing a younger sibling or classmate. Such situations pose an ethical conflict between the practitioner's duty to report and the duty to protect his/her patient.[74]

[edit] Organizations
"ONESTAND" against child abuse
There are organizations at national, state, and county levels in the United States that provide community leadership in preventing child abuse and neglect. The National Alliance of Children's Trust Funds and Prevent Child Abuse America are two national organizations with member organizations at the state level.
Many investigations into child abuse are handled on the local level by Child Advocacy Centers. Started over 25 years ago at what is now known as the National Children's Advocacy Center[75] in Huntsville, Alabama by District Attorney Robert "Bud" Cramer these multi-disciplinary teams have met to coordinate their efforts so that cases of child abuse can be investigated quickly and efficiently, ultimately reducing trauma to the child and garnering better convictions.[76][77] These Child Advocacy Centers (known as CACs) have standards set by the National Children's Alliance.[78]
Other organizations focus on specific prevention strategies. The National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome focuses its efforts on the specific issue of preventing child abuse that is manifested as shaken baby syndrome. Mandated reporter training is a program used to prevent ongoing child abuse.

1. Road bullies

Dealing With Road Bullies

Posted on: Friday, 3 February 2006, 09:00 CST
With the worrying yet growing trend of aggressive drivers out on our roads today, this week's Tools of the Trade is here to offer some simple but important advice on how to deal with road bullies.
While violent cases of road rage are rare, it is important to be aware of what to do if you ever feel threatened by another driver.
Incidents of road rage and bullying range from motorway chases and being followed home to verbal and physical attacks or just simple intimidation.
It's all too easy to forget, but every car journey brings with it a risk of frustration and conflict ( sometimes the most trivial of incidents can spark off a road-rage situation, so it is important to keep a few hints at the forefront of your mind before setting off.
A lot of hostile behaviour from other drivers may be unintentional ( after all, we all have bad days. But making gestures or shouting at another driver could provoke them. If someone's driving annoys you, try not to aggravate the situation. Remember, it is the job of the police to ensure that drivers abide by the law.
It's also a good idea to try to be as courteous a driver as possible, giving way at busy junctions or where traffic lanes merge to avoid frustration on the roads. Patience on the roads can do a lot to alleviate aggressiveness, and you will find that road courtesy won't delay your journey very much.
These tips will hopefully make your car journey as calm, safe and comfortable as possible.
However, if a driver acts aggressively towards you, avoid making eye contact, as this can be seen as confrontational. Similarly, accelerating suddenly or braking abruptly may provoke the other driver to respond, but also puts you and any passengers in danger.
2. How can the homeless be helped?

How to Help the Homeless

eHow Culture & Society Editor
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By an eHow Contributor
Homelessness is a very real and misunderstood situation that affects over one million Americans. Some view homelessness as a natural consequence of laziness or a lack of motivation. However, homelessness often stems from job loss, mental illness, domestic violence or teenagers running away from home. Fortunately, there are ways to help.


o    1
Donate items for the homeless. Set aside used clothing and toys next time you clean out the closet. Other donations, such as food and cash, can also be taken to a homeless shelter.
o    2
Work at a shelter. You can help feed the homeless year-round. Even people with very busy schedules can volunteer whenever it's possible.
o    3
Volunteer your time with other organizations that offer aid to the homeless. Check with your local Salvation Army to find ways you can help. The little bit of kindness you give, will be remembered for a long time.
o    4
Use your talents to help others. Lawyers can provide free legal help. Medical and dental services can be offered to the homeless at no cost by doctors and dentists. If you are a teacher, you can offer tutoring.
o    5
Educate others. Whether you're letting others know about a shelter, what they can do to help, or responding when an uninformed person makes an incorrect and insensitive comment, your knowledge can go a long way in convincing others to help.

How To Help The Homeless

How do you help a drunk homeless man? are there really children living on the streets in America/? How do we really help the homeless help themselves.
Is there any ways that really help the homeless? Does handing the panhandler a dollar do any good? Are you looking for the quick help or do you want to help solve the solution? The biggest problem is the homeless are not a group of the same person so their problems are not the same so the same solution will not work for everybody.

First off the reason for their homelessness is not the same. Yes some are due to addictions – both alcohol and drugs. Others have psychological issues. And then the fastest growing segment is those running from spousal abuse. And some simply have out spent their income and ended up on the streets with the downward spiral that leads to loss of job and loss of everything else.

So you have 2 avenues to help – the long term solution and the short term fix. The long term solution includes finding them jobs and affordable housing. The long term solution also focuses on fixing the other issues – the addictions, the psychological and emotional help, career and family counseling. So the long term solutions help with economic means to get them off the streets and the mental issues to help them cope so they don’t end up back on the street.
But since most people only want a short quick answer we will now comment on the ways to help the homeless deal with their everyday issues. Though these solutions are vital to them surviving they do nothing to help get them off the Street – they help them deal with the street.

What do you do when you see someone holding up a sign, "Will Work for Food"? Do you roll down your window and give them money? Do you pretend you didn't see them? Nobody likes to be confronted by the homeless - their needs often seem too overwhelming - but we all want to treat them fairly and justly.
Here are some simple guidelines to equip you to truly help the homeless people you meet:

First off please do not give money to the homeless. If you want to donate money give it to the shelter that takes care of them. Too often, well intended gifts are converted to drugs or alcohol - even when the "hard luck" stories they tell are true. If the person is hungry, buy them a sandwich and a beverage. Taking time to talk to a homeless person in a friendly, respectful manner can give them a wonderful sense of civility and dignity. And besides being just neighborly, it gives the person a weapon to fight the isolation, depression and paranoia that many homeless people face.

The homeless are as diverse as the colors of a rainbow. The person you meet may be battered women, an addicted veteran; someone who is lacking job skills...the list goes on. Please do not treat them ALL as addicts – the addicted old homeless man we all pictures is only 25% of the population. So try and treat them with respect – remember they are still people too as you deal with them help them to help themselves. Take them to the appropriate homeless shelter. Most shelters offer immediate food and shelter to the homelessness through their emergency shelters. Many offer long-term rehabilitation programs that deal with the root causes of homeless. Many also offer "tickets" that can be given to homeless people which can be exchanged at the shelter for a notorious meal, safe overnight lodging, and the option of participating in a rehab program. Exposure to the elements, dirt, occasional violence, and lack of purpose all drain years from a person's life. God can use your prayers and the brutality and the futility of life of the street to bring many of the broken to Himself. So please pray for the homeless.

So you want to do little more. Their immediate needs are the basics – food, clothes, and shoes. So you can take food to the homeless shelters. Get with your local grocery store and ask if you can have the daily leftovers and date expired food. Take to the shelter. If you like set up a weekly trip and take them enough food every week - now you are making a big difference. Take along your kids. Another great way to help is to take your extra shoes, coats and clothes. Have a clothes drive in your neighborhood, Do it on a monthly basis – if you like – the homeless residents next month are most likely not the homeless residents who were there this month.

The homeless in America are growing at a rapid rate and we all need to pitch in and help. Listed below are some staggering facts in regard to the homeless numbers and their conditions:

1. Family Homelessness: A New Social Problem
Except during the Great Depression, women and children have never been on our nation's streets in significant numbers. During the 1980's, cutbacks in benefits coupled with rapidly increasing rents and a dearth of low-income housing jeopardized the stability of all people with reduced or fixed incomes. At the same time, the number of female-headed households dramatically increased. As a result, the nation's population of homeless families swelled from almost negligible numbers to nearly 40% of the overall homeless population today. The United States in unique among industrialized nations in that women and children comprise such a large percentage of our country's homeless.

2. More Than One Million Homeless Children
Although counting the exact number of homeless children is difficult, a consensus is emerging among researchers. According to the National Coalition for the Homeless, 1.2 million children are homeless on any given night. Supporting this figure are estimates from the U.S. Department of Education that report almost 400,000 homeless children were served by the nation's public schools last year. Since more than half of all homeless children are under the age of 6 and not yet in school, a minimum of 800,000 children
can be presumed to be homeless. On the basis of these data, the National Center on Family Homelessness concludes that more than one million American children are homeless today.

3. Family Homelessness Will Increase
Looking beyond current numbers, The National Center on Family Homelessness (NCFH) predicts that tight housing markets accompanied by decreasing availability of cash benefits as a result of welfare reform will lead to an increase in family homelessness. To determine which states will have the biggest problem, NCFH created an index of seven risk factors for family homelessness. These factors were identified from epidemiological research conducted over the past ten years. The ranking of states is presented in the report.

Part II

1. Homelessness Makes Children Sick
Researchers from NCFH have isolated homelessness as a direct predictor of specific childhood illnesses.
Homeless children:
• Are in fair or poor health twice as often as other children and four times as often as children whose families earn more than $35,000 a year.
• Have higher rates of low birth weight and need special care right after birth four times as often as other children.
• Have very high rates of acute illness, with half suffering from two or more symptoms during a single month.
• Have twice as many ear infections, five times more diarrhea and stomach problems, and six times as many speech and stammering problems.
• Are four times more likely to be asthmatic.
• Go hungry at more than twice the rate of other children.

2. Homelessness Wounds Young Children
Every day, homeless children are confronted with stressful, often traumatic events.
• 74% of homeless children worry they will have no place to live.
• 58% worry they will have no place to sleep.
• 87% worry that something bad will happen to their family.
Within a single year:
• 97% of homeless children move, many up to three times.
• More than 30% are evicted from their housing.
• 22% are separated from their family to be put in foster care or sent to live with a relative.
• Almost 25% have witnessed acts of violence within their family.
The constant barrage of stressful and traumatic experiences has profound effects on the cognitive and emotional development of homeless children.
• Homeless babies show significantly slower development than other children do.
• More than one-fifth of homeless children between 3 and 6 years of age have emotional problems serious enough to require professional care.
• Homeless children between 6 and 17 years struggle with very high rates of mental health problems.
• Less than one-third of homeless children are receiving mental health treatment.

3. Homelessness Devastates Families
Families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population, now accounting for almost 40% of the nation's homeless. More than 85% of homeless families are headed by single mothers, with the average homeless family comprised of a young mother and her two young children, most of whom are below the age of 6 years.
Homeless mothers have an average annual income of under $8000, living at 63% of the federal poverty level for a family of three.
• Only 21% of homeless mothers receive money from family, partners, or friends.
• 39% have been hospitalized for medical treatment.
• 22% have asthma, compared to 5% of other women under 45 years.
• 20% have anemia, compared to 2% of other women under 45 years.
• 40% report alcohol or drug dependency at some time in their lives.

Although 70% of fathers of homeless children are in touch with their children, most do not live with the family. The downward spiral into homelessness for a child is often accelerated if a father loses his job, becomes injured or ill, has a bout with alcohol or drugs, or is involved with the criminal justice system.
• 50% of fathers are unemployed.
• 43% have problems with drugs or alcohol.
• 31% have physical or mental health problems.
• 32% are in jail or on probation.

Homeless children are at particularly high risk for being placed in foster care; 12% of homeless children are placed in foster care compared to just over 1% of other children.

The National Center on Family
Homelessness has identified placement in foster care as one of only two childhood risk factors that predicts family homelessness during adulthood.
• 44% of homeless mothers lived outside of their homes at some point during their childhood; 20% of these women were placed in foster care.
• 70% of homeless mothers placed in foster care as children have had at least one of their own children in foster care.
The frequency of violence in the lives of homeless mothers is staggering.
• 63% have been violently abused by an intimate male partner.
• 27% have required medical treatment because of violence by an intimate male partner.
• 25% have been physically or sexually assaulted during adulthood by someone other than an intimate partner.
• 66% were violently abused by a childhood caretaker or other adult in the household before reaching 18.
• 43% were sexually molested as children.
When the violence from their childhood is combined with their experiences as adults, 92% of homeless mothers have been severely physically or sexually assaulted; 88% have been violently abused by a family member or intimate partner. These repeated acts of brutality result in unusually high rates of serious
emotional problems among homeless mothers.

• 36% have experienced Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; three times the rate of other women.
• 45% have had a major depressive disorder, twice the rate of other women.
• 31% have attempted suicide at least once, primarily during adolescence.
• 12% have been hospitalized for treatment of mental illness.
Among homeless children:
• 8% have been physically abused, twice the rate of other children.
• 8% have been sexually abused; three times the rate of other children.
• 35% have been the subject of a child protection investigation.
• 24% have witnessed acts of violence within their family.
• 15% have seen their father hit their mother.
• 11% have seen their mother abused by a male partner.

4. Homeless Children Struggle in School
Despite state and federal efforts to provide homeless children with improved access to public school, at least one-fifth of homeless children do not attend school.
Homelessness takes children far away from their own schools and classmates. For many homeless children:
• There is no transportation from shelters to school.
• Improvised living arrangements are too short to make enrolling in a new school worthwhile.
• Lack of academic and medical records creates obstacles to registration.
• Daily demands of finding food and shelter push children's educational needs aside.
Homeless children who manage to attend school face discouraging barriers to their academic success.
• Homeless children have four times the average rate of delayed development.
• Have more academic problems that other children.
• Are under served by special education.
• Are suspended twice as often as other children.
Among homeless children, there is twice the number of students with learning disabilities and three times the number of students with emotional and behavioral problems.
Homeless children are twice as likely to repeat a grade.
• 21% of homeless children repeat a grade because of frequent absence from school, compared to
5% of other children.
• 14% repeat a grade because they have moved to a new school, compared to 5% of other children.
Within a single year:
• 40% of homeless children attend two different schools.
• 28% attend three or more different schools.

So they need your help. Start with the short term help – provide food and clothes or shoes, And as you get involved start thinking of ways to help with the long term needs. With the current economic conditions its only going to get worse, And more help will be needed, And when you picture the homeless please picture the homeless child and not the drunken, pan handling bum. That homeless child so desperately needs your help.
Help Homeless Children
A way to directly help the homeless

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